1) A child born to a perfectly healthy family was diagnosed with a rare disease. After abnormal behavior in the child, the family decided to get his DNA checked via 23andme company and also consult an oncology doctor. The child was diagnosed with chronic myelogenous leukemia. When the sequence of his DNA was retrieved, the doctors told the parents of the child that the chromosomal sequence of the child was different than his parents. In fact, especially one of the chromosomes (chromosome 8) looked extensively long (like chromosome 1). How could this child acquire this kind of extension in the chromosome?
2)What are the two terminators in prokaryotes and how do they work to stop transcription?
Well, he acquired this extra long chromosome due to the fact that another chromosome at one point broke off and stuck to the one with the extra long chromosome it happens sometimes due to failures in DNA repair pathways probably Double-Strand Break Repair.
Secondly, Terminators, the two types are (1) rho-independent terminators and (2) rho-dependent terminators. Basically, both types stop the RNA Polymerase from continuing to transform the DNA into RNA at those points which terminates the Transcription. There is a RNA chain that blocks attached to a hairpin the RNA polymerase’s active site in rho-independent terminators and in rho-dependent terminators there is a amino acid chain with rho on it that blocks the RNA polymerase’s active site.