Cellular Respiration

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    • #882
      ms.scientist NOT!
      Participant

      πŸ™‚ Hey there im needing help on cellular respiration. I know a lil about diffusion and osmosis but are there any sites that have basic info on cellular respiration that i can visit??????? πŸ™

    • #22364
      mith
      Participant

      Use the search function on the forum, there’s a couple of threads about that.

    • #22371
      thank.darwin
      Participant

      Check out these sites…

      http://www.sp.uconn.edu/~terry/images/anim/ATPmito.html

      Animations of ATP production in the mitochondria. Thomas Terry of the University of Connecticut has created excellent animations of electron transport and the ATP synthease enzyme. These animations help to explain how electron transport generates an electrical gradient that provides the energy necessary to produce ATP. Click on the various links for different animations.

      http://www.sp.uconn.edu/~terry/images/anim/ETS.html

      Animations of electron transport in the mitochondria. You may reach this animation using links from the first address, since this is another animation produced by Thomas Terry.

      http://www.emc.maricopa.edu/faculty/far … kGlyc.html

      Cellular metabolism and fermentation. This chapter of M.J. Farabee’s excellent online textbook will help you learn about both aerobic and anaerobic respiration.

      http://users.rcn.com/jkimball.ma.ultran … ation.html

      A summary of the process of cellular respiration.

      http://www2.nl.edu/jste/electron_transport_system.htm

      Electron transport system. Hit the play buttons at the corners of the diagrams to view some nice animations. This is a really good visual representation of electron transport and chemiosmosis.

      http://www.bact.wisc.edu/microtextbook/ … foods.html

      Fermentations of Importance to Humans. Examples of, and a brief discussion of how to make, some of the products of fermentation.

      http://www.goaskalice.columbia.edu/0818.html

      Muscle soreness and weightlifting. Alice explains why your muscles produce lactic acid and how you can avoid lactic acid production when weightlifting.

      http://www.stolaf.edu/people/giannini/f … nsport.swf

      Another animation of electron transport. I can’t get enough of these. Hit the GO button in the lower left corner to start the show.

      http://www.jonmaber.demon.co.uk/glyintro/

      Introduction to glycolysis. Go to the questions at the bottom and click on each one. You can use the arrows at the top of each question page to proceed. Lots of information here if you can work your way through the site. I found that the Quicktime animations worked better on my computer.

      http://www.ruf.rice.edu/~bioslabs/studi … isons.html

      Use of metabolic poisons to study mitochondrial function. A brief list of poisons that inhibit mitochondrial functioning.

      http://www.gwu.edu/~mpb/

      Metabolic pathways of biochemistry. While in more detail than your text, this site presents you with excellent three-dimensional rotatable images of carbohydrate metabolism (glycolysis, Krebs cycle…), lipid metabolism, protein metabolism, and chemiosmosis (oxidative phosphorylation). I had some trouble connecting to the 3-D plug-ins.

      http://old.jccc.net/~pdecell/cellresp/respoverview.html

      Overview of cellular respiration. You can click on various regions of the map for a more detailed explanation of that component of cellular respiration.

      http://instruct1.cit.cornell.edu/Course … LYSIS.HTML

      The miracle of fermentation. You will need Macromedia’s Shockwave player to view this animation on lactate (lactic acid) fermentation.

      I take no credit for these sites… My biology teacher gave them to me.

    • #22386
      MrMistery
      Participant

      And i was just going to say that you really outdone yourself.. πŸ˜›

    • #22397
      thank.darwin
      Participant

      Yah, my biology teacher is great πŸ˜€

    • #22617
      kade
      Participant
      quote thank.darwin:

      Yah, my biology teacher is great πŸ˜€

      I wish i could say the same about my biology teacher.

    • #22648
      MrMistery
      Participant

      My biology teacher is also great, but can’t use a computer πŸ™ πŸ™

    • #22898
      Tamsicle
      Participant

      I really need help with the cellular respiration thing too. I’m familliar with a little bit of it, I think.

      Does cellular respiration only refer to aerobic respiration or also anaerobic resp.? And aerobic resp occurs within the matrix of the mitochondria? (Is that BEHIND the cistae (I think it is?)? Does it diffuse in through the membrane or something? Is oxygen delivered to that region of the cell or does it just have to be present within the cytoplasm?) Also, what the hell is an electron transport chain? I’ve tried to read so many explanations but it seems like a phenomennon only a chem student could understand. I feel like sighing and accepting the fact that I may never ‘get it’.

      Without giving me a website that I can’t understand, can someone please assist me? πŸ™

    • #22905
      Poison
      Participant

      cellular respiration refers to both anaerobic and aerobic respiration.
      Aerobic respiration and anaerobic respiration both starts with the same process called Glycolysis. In aerobic, the further parts,in eukaryotes, take place in the mitochondria (in the matrix and the crista, matrix is the inner part of mitochondria). In anareobic, the process goes on in the cytoplasm. Yes. it is similar to diffusion, but the beter explanation (in my opinion) is: ‘ it enters the mitochondria.’
      Oxygen is taken in to the cell by diffusion.
      Electron transport System (ETS) is the system that is present on the crista of the mitochondira. It is like reducing the energy in levels.

      Hope these helped… πŸ™‚

    • #23808
      victor
      Participant

      I would also say the same. cellular respiration refers to both anaerobic and aerobic respiration. But the difference is on the products of each respiration and total ATP that they earn. In the aerobic respiration, there are 3 process which are glycolysis (earn 2 ATPs and 2 molecules of piruvic acid) then it continues to oxydative decarbocilation (taking away CO2 molecules in the piruvic acid and combine it with coenzyme A) after that it goes to crebs cycle and electron transport system. total ATP that is earned by the whole process of aerobic respiration is 34 ATPs. while in the anaerobic respiration it only have two steps which is glycolysis and then it continues to fermentation process. the total ATP that are earned in the anaerobic respiration is only 2 ATPs. So we can conclude that aerobic respiration process earn ATP 18 times larger that anaerobic respiration process.

    • #23851
      MrMistery
      Participant

      A small correction victor. While fermentation is a typ of anaerobic respiration, it is not the only type. I will only give one example from dentrifying bacteria. It has an electron transport chain in it’s mezozomes but the final acceptor it not oxigen, but nitrate(oxidated form)
      The confusion between anaerobic respiration and fermentation is very common but alarming. It is like confusing mIRC and IRC

    • #23883
      victor
      Participant

      Yup, I also think like that, because I’d read my book that there are fermentation that uses oxygen.(if I’m not mistaken, it’s kinda like making an ethanol with the help of bacteria)

    • #23916
      MrMistery
      Participant

      No victor, no fermentation uses oxygen. Fermentation is by definition anaerobic. There are 2 things that you might be confusing this with: the fact that saccharomyces cerivisiae(yeast) can do aerobic respiration if there is oxygen in the environment. If there is not, it does fermentation.
      In some books they mention an acetic fermentation. This is not a true fermentation since it requires oxygen(pasteur proved that it does). The reaction is as follows:
      CH3CH2OH + 02 –> CH3COOH + H2O

    • #23969
      victor
      Participant

      A small correction Andrew…There are 2 steps to form acetic acid from ethanol.
      CH3CH2OH + O2 ——–> CH3CHO + H2O (Ethanal) then it countinues to
      CH3CHO + O2 ———> CH3COOH + H2O (Acetic acid)
      Perhaps, you need an ethanol with a primary OH substance (coz there’s no place to make the secondary one πŸ˜† )

      Oh, about Saccharomyces cereviceae whics can do aerobic and anaerobic, it’s no wonder…because S.cereviceae is an anaerobic facultative organism which is breath using oxygen if there’s oxygen and doing fermentation if there’s no oxygen.

    • #24075
      MrMistery
      Participant

      Thanks for telling me about those 2 stages, victor. I can’t believe that none of my books says something so important

    • #24176
      victor
      Participant

      Perhaps you’ll not find it in your bio book maybe because those step was explained in my chemistry book πŸ˜† . But, by the way Andrew, your bio knowledge is so great. I’m really no match for you.. πŸ˜†
      Oh yes…a little bit addition…ethanal is IUPAC name..the trivial name is “Acetaldehyde” and Acetic acid is the trivial name…the IUPAC name is Ethanoic acid…perhaps maybe you’ve known ’bout this..

    • #24240
      MrMistery
      Participant

      By some strange coincidence, i have heard about that. But since probably not everybody knows acetic acid is still a better term since we are not chemists πŸ˜€

    • #24285
      b_d_41501
      Participant

      To heck with acetic acid, just call it Vinegar. lol .j/k πŸ˜†

    • #24414
      victor
      Participant

      You’ve to know ’bout them man..b’coz according to me that biologist and chemist are like “brother”.. πŸ˜†

    • #24585
      MrMistery
      Participant

      Brothers but not twins… Biologists never blow stuff up.. Unfortunately πŸ‘Ώ

    • #24586
      b_d_41501
      Participant

      You can if you rob the Organic Chemistry lab, lol. πŸ‘Ώ

    • #24699
      victor
      Participant

      According to me, sometimes you have to know what is the exact name of some chemical substances. You can’t always rely on trade name/trivial name. that’s why I suggest bio-students to learn IUPAC…. πŸ˜†

    • #24957
      LrdGeno
      Participant

      why is it that electron transport involves the binding of oxygen to NAD+? Why not just explain it like that untill it gets to the electron transport chain, because that is where it is actually seperated into H+ and E- right? Or am I just totally lost on the whole process, because it’s still alittle bit strange to my nonbiology thinking brain!

    • #24979
      MrMistery
      Participant

      You are confused. NAD carries an electron and a proton, turning into NADH. These are taken later through a set of enzymes that produce ATP from the electron’s cynetic energy. Eventually the meat oxygen and form water
      Putting it a lot simpler than it really is, of course πŸ˜€ πŸ˜€

    • #25052
      LrdGeno
      Participant

      oops… that’s what i ment. not oxygen, but hydrogen. because NADH carries the hydrogen atom, and another electron making the whole thing NADH and H+ right? Then it goes to the ETC where the electrons are dumped off on the proteins eventually moving down to bind with oxygen and some H+ ions that are hanging out in the cell to form water. The 2 H+ ions, that were sperated from the electrons at the start, are pushed outside making the concentration gradient of H+ on the ouside of the mitochondria (sp?) and through facillitated diffusion through the ATP synthase makes ATP by binding the ADP to a phosphate group, all using the kenetic energy of the H+ ions to rotate the ATP synthase protein, right? I hope that’s right ’cause it’s a mouthfull! haha

    • #25071
      MrMistery
      Participant

      You are probably right… I can’t understand you because you don’t use sentences. πŸ˜‰ πŸ˜‰

    • #25077
      LrdGeno
      Participant

      gotcha… i get alittle excitied when I think I figure something out. lol okay, So first off I ment that NAD+ binds with Hydrogen not Oxygen. That makes NADH and H+. The H+ ions are shuffled outside into the cytoplasm, and the NADH (with the 2 electrons) goes to the ETC. The electrons are dumped off on the ETC proteins, and the remaining H+ gets shoved outside with the others. The electrons go down the ETC eventually binding with some spare H+ ions and an Oxygen to make water. That whole process makes a concentration gradient of H+ on the outside of the mitochondria. Then using the kenetic energy of the H+ ions, and facillitated diffusion through the ATP Synthase a phosphate group is bound to ADP to make ATP. Hopefully that’s right… ’cause if it’s not I’m in serous trouble! πŸ˜† πŸ˜†

    • #25123
      MrMistery
      Participant

      The protons are transported between the membranes from what i know, not into the cytoplasm. When they diffuse back energy is formed by some enzymes called F0F1-ATP-ase
      This takes place like this
      2H+ 2e +o2–> 2H2O+ E
      E + ADP + Pi–> ATP
      This without going into the 3 compexes of fosforilation

    • #25185
      LrdGeno
      Participant

      okay. I understand now, I forgot that the mitochondria had two membrane layers! πŸ˜† so that makes sense. My instructor said they were diffused back in by a protien she called ATP synthase, and I’m assuming that has the enzyme in it.

    • #25186
      MrMistery
      Participant

      Af, teachers… You can’t live with them, you can’t stab them in the back
      ATP-synthetase is a general term, you can find these in the membrane of the chloroplast. The synthetase in this case is called F0F1-ATP-synthetase(generally referred to as F0F1-ATPase)
      Enzymes ARE proteins(in general, with a few exceptions)

    • #25404
      LrdGeno
      Participant

      groovy, i told my proff that I knew the name of the synthetase and she was impressed! thanx for the info. I’m just taking basic biology so i’m not expecting the teachers to go too in depth in the material

    • #25510
      MrMistery
      Participant

      They don’t need too, but the fact that enzymes are proteins is a basic cellular bio thing. By the way, the name of the enzyme-you learn it in college so your teacher might think you are reading college books now πŸ˜€ πŸ˜€

    • #25531
      LrdGeno
      Participant

      Haha… I am in college. But it’s only a 123 lvl course so it’s just the basics of how cells work and blah blah blah. Next semester I’m starting my 200 lvl courses so it’s going to get more intense. I’m also starting anatomy and physiology ( it’s late and I can’t spell ) so hopefully i’m gonna learn alot more

    • #25536
      th1_rhs13
      Participant

      You should relaly eloborate further rather than making a genralized blanket statement of what a Enzyme is– the fact they have no nutrtional value and only act as catalysts for metabolic reactions should have been discussed as well.

      This might help. Easy to understand language with rather funny diagrams.

      http://www.chem.purdue.edu/chm333/Fall% … e%2013.pdf

    • #25576
      LrdGeno
      Participant

      that was all explained, however the teacher didn’t get to the names because it’s an entery lvl course, designed to introduce students to basic biology concepts

    • #25616
      MrMistery
      Participant

      I hate entry level courses, they tell you poems rather than explaining the process to it’s working mechanisms. Well, good luck next year with the real fun! By the way, i hate anatomy… I always get the cranial nerves mixed up πŸ˜€

    • #25682
      LrdGeno
      Participant

      thanks I think I’m going to need it. I’m going to start taking more biology so hopefully I won’t know just enough to be dangerous

    • #25757
      MrMistery
      Participant

      Biology is eas… Well, except anatomy… The great thing about it is that it all makes sense

    • #25777
      chemistry_freako
      Participant

      Hmm, sounds like what i did last week for one of my practicals haha.
      We tried to ferment grape juice with yeast (S.cerevisiea) – and did Brix to check on the sugar content too. Pretty simple but fun i must say =D
      Thank goodness i dun think we got our “wine” contaminated by Acetobacter or my sulphur reducing bacteria haha (cos our lead acetate paper pasted inside our flask didn’t turn black) =).

    • #25841
      victor
      Participant

      @Andrew
      Guess you’re wrong…I learned anatomy when I was in 11th class and I found that anatomy is the most interesting part of biology…beside it’s quite ‘easy’.. πŸ˜† (well it’s until now…and that’s why I really active in human biology site πŸ˜† )

    • #25854
      mith
      Participant

      There’s 206 bones and god knows how many muscles to memorize πŸ™

    • #25873
      MrMistery
      Participant

      Anatomy? Easy?! You don’t need to memorise all the 206 bones and 665(i think) muscles in the human body… All you need to memorise is structure and fiziology of each organ. Sure, anatomy seems easy… But here is the kind of question i need to know for the national lot(i am really proud since i am the only one who answered it correctly at the lot this year):
      Name all the kinds of cells in the liver! Can you? πŸ˜‰

    • #25888
      mith
      Participant

      uuuhh, the liver cells?

    • #25891
      LrdGeno
      Participant

      I agree with mithril. The only thing I know about the liver is it filters blood, and the cells only regenerate when there’s damage to it, and that i’m not even sure about

    • #25918
      MrMistery
      Participant

      The most abundent cells in the liver are the parenchimatic(round) ones: hepatocytes(commonly reffered to as liver cells)
      Other cells(non-parenchimatic=with other formes than round):
      -the endotelial cells of the sinusoid cappilaries
      – PIT cells
      – ITO cells
      – Kupfer cells
      – epitelial cells of the biliar ducts(not sure about the translation here)
      What be too tell you what each of them does(Yeah, i know i am showing off πŸ˜€ )?

      It took me a very long time to learn this kind of stuff… But this is the kind of questions they ask at IBO

    • #25942
      mith
      Participant

      Go right ahead πŸ˜€
      Interesting that the liver has epithelial cells.

      P.S. what’s the UAG in your sig stand for?

    • #25952
      MrMistery
      Participant

      PS: the liver is made out of epithelial cell, you know
      Here is what i remember…
      Kupfer cells are also in the capilaries… They belong to the mononuclear fagocytosis sistem(a defense system)
      ITO cells- my personal favourites.. Their number increases significally in hipervitaminose A. When there is an overload with lipids or alcohol these cells turn into something called miofibroblasts that contribue to the fibrosation(right term?!) of the liver by producing colagen and also by producing some chemical substances that favourise fibrosation
      PIT cells- they are T limfocytes(T natural killers). They stick to the glicocalix of the hepatocytes. Their number increases in inflamations
      Epithelial cells don’t do anything, they just stand there 8)


      @mithril

      Check genetic code

    • #26004
      LrdGeno
      Participant

      you know what makes me feel like a total slacker, is that you’re probally a highschool student! So you show off man, ’cause that’s awesome

    • #26026
      James
      Participant

      Aww come on Mithril, it’s a stop codon; and it’s a good sig Andrew

    • #26046
      mith
      Participant

      Boy, don’t I feel dumb πŸ˜•

    • #26056
      MrMistery
      Participant
      quote LrdGeno:

      you know what makes me feel like a total slacker, is that you’re probally a highschool student! So you show off man, ’cause that’s awesome

      You can relax, if you don’t know this you are not a total slacker. This is college level human anatomy, it is learned in the 2nd or third year of college in my country, i’m not exactly sure. This goes waaaaaaay beyond your average high-school book

    • #26180
      LrdGeno
      Participant

      haha, i’m in college. Granted it’s the end of my first year, and all I’m taking are pretty much entery level classes.

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