Central Dogma of Molecular Biology

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    • #11278
      JosePR
      Participant

      Good day to you all.

      Before I discuss biology and ask my question, I will introduce myself.

      My name is José. I am a Puerto Rican man, born here in Puerto Rico. English is my second language; my first is Spanish.

      Now, my first discussion and question.

      The Central Dogma of Molecular Biology is, quite briefly, DNA, RNA, protein. This Central Dogma was established by Francis Crick in 1958. Crick was also the man who discovered the double helix structure of DNA, with James Watson, in 1953. The conversion of DNA to mRNA is transcription, and the conversion of mRNA to the protein is translation. Besides messenger RNA (mRNA) , there is also ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and transfer RNA (tRNA) , but here we are concerned with mRNA. A protein is simply a large peptide, and can also be called a polypeptide. The building blocks of peptides and proteins are amino acids, which are linked by amide (peptide) bonds. The RNA can be converted back to DNA by retroviruses (RNA viruses) such as HIV with the use of reverse transcriptase enzyme.

      Now, I ask, How does this process of DNA, mRNA, protein lead to phenotype ?

      Also, how is this Central Dogma related to gene, enzyme, and metabolism ?

      Please tell me. Thanks.

      Oh, now that I mention phenotype, this is the physical appearance of the organism. Genotype is the genetic composition of the organism.

      Please answer my questions. Thank you, and good day.

      JoséPR

    • #90367
      alextemplet
      Participant

      This is a topic that could go into quite a lot of discussion and technical details, but to answer it briefly, DNA contains the blueprint for an organism, which RNA (in its various forms) then uses to produce proteins. The proteins are then put together according to the instructions in the genes that control embryonic development to produce an organism, the appearance of the final result being the phenotype. This is a very watered-down explanation but that’s the main points. Do you need this for a class or are you just curious?

    • #90416
      jonmoulton
      Participant

      The book "Coming to Life" by Christine Nusslein-Volhard addresses the question of how the DNA-RNA-protein system can produce an organism. The book is written for an interested lay audience by a Nobel prizewinner whose field is developmental biology. If you are interested in a more in-depth response to your question, this is a good source with which to start.

      Alextemplet: I like your brief answer. Those broad questions are tough to address in an online forum.

      Coming to Life — How Genes Drive Development
      Christine Nusslein-Volhard
      Kales Press
      2006
      ISBN 0-9670076-7-4

    • #90714
      JosePR
      Participant
      quote alextemplet:

      This is a topic that could go into quite a lot of discussion and technical details, but to answer it briefly, DNA contains the blueprint for an organism, which RNA (in its various forms) then uses to produce proteins. The proteins are then put together according to the instructions in the genes that control embryonic development to produce an organism, the appearance of the final result being the phenotype. This is a very watered-down explanation but that’s the main points. Do you need this for a class or are you just curious?

      Hi.

      Thank you for your response. I apologise for the delay.

      No, it is not for a class. I was only curious.

      Have a nice day ! 😀

      José, from Puerto Rico

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