What’s the difference between a clathrate and a hydration shell?
Is it right that in a hydration shell the water molecules are coming in and out, replacing the molecules that were already a part of the shell, "dynamic", but in a clathrate, everything is fixed and ordered (no replacement of molecules going on)?
I’m not really sure if I follow my book’s descriptions of the two…
a hydration shell is the result of a polar solvent (in this case water) orienting itself around ions due to the charge. The ions are essentially surrounded by a "shell" of water. The "shell" is not fixed, and molecules may move around, about, in and out… but they all orient themselves around the ion based on its charge.
A clathrate structure is a lattice structure… fixed and ordered like you said. Solid water (aka ice) forms a clathrate structure.