yeah she is kind of correct. Your taste receptor is just a protein which only has room to bind to like very specific and I guess in way small molecules. If something doesnt get dissolved, it is essentially a huge molecule. But of course if a big thing touches your receptor, you should get some reaction. But if u want to know specific flavors, sweet, spicy, those things, they have to dissolve.
No, your teacher is incorrect. I can taste gas, solid, and liquid. The mechanism of taste is insanely complicated, and anyone who tells you they understand how the sense of taste works is confused or a liar.
Just roll with it, your teacher is right until you leave the class.
You taste gas and solids because they have dissolved in liquid portion inside your mouth and has made contact with the receptors on your taste buds. It’s complicated in a neurological sense, but we dont really care about that because we are at the tongue right now.