embryo fusion?

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    • #1445
      protozoan
      Participant

      In my book of cytology i read that if you fuse (by pressure) 3 or more embryos it can develope to the normal individual which inherits characters from more parents. This means this individual will have for example in the cells from hand other genotype than will have cells from for example guts? (very symple told). Is this posible? Then if you tried to clon him you should clon more individuals cause you could start to clon from cells with different genotypes.( these cells would be still from that one individual that unfortunate) 😯 Then you also could get individuals which never existed but which would develope from that embryos which was before fusion. You wouldnt get his clon, but the clons of these embryos.

    • #26593
      mith
      Participant

      They called it a chimera in CSI. My bio book says it can be done on mice.

    • #26624
      protozoan
      Participant

      😯 Its crazy….. Whats CSI?

      By the way, i read in this book that if you fuse two somatic cells (2n or more) of plant you can get new plant with new characteristics. That hybridization can be even betwen two different species. I cannot imagine what will happen with all chromosomes of these two somatic cells. Do they work in the new karyon all or are they regulated betwen each other by some kind of way?

    • #26626
      Poison
      Participant

      A new species can form with polyploidy, it is common in plants.

    • #26629
      mith
      Participant

      crime scene investigation(a CBS show).

    • #26659
      Dr.Stein
      Participant

      We use chimera in Immunology, for instance to cure autoimmune disease.

    • #26824
      protozoan
      Participant

      Dr: Stein wrote

      quote :

      We use chimera in Immunology, for instance to cure autoimmune disease.

      How? Did you do a sheep whith human imunne system? 😉

    • #26848
      Dr.Stein
      Participant

      For example, we irradiate mice A (strain-A) so they lose all their peripheral lymphocytes. Then we transfer peripheral lymphocytes (mature and educated lymphocytes) from another mouse (strain-B). This situation will induce activation of naive T cells in mice A, so they will generate a new behavior, different from the one before irradiation. This is a kind of chimera, because now in mice A environment possess cells from other strain with different origin.

      Can you tell me what happened after the transfer? 😉

    • #26866
      protozoan
      Participant

      No i cannot. 😀 . But it would be interesting to know. Now im gonna take a long way through web to learn about imunne system. Hmmm…maybe ill find an answer. 8)

    • #26868
      mith
      Participant

      Sounds like vaccination

    • #26897
      Dr.Stein
      Participant

      Vaccination? Hihi naah… 🙂 In vaccination, the individual has peripheral lymphocytes. The vaccine, or to be precise the antigen, will stimulate those lymphocytes and other immune cells to respond. The acute effect is inflammatory reaction and fever. While in this case, the indivudual, mice A does not have any peripheral lymphocytes, just another leucocytes…

    • #26919
      mith
      Participant

      I see, does the irradiation of mice A have any big side effects? Doesn’t seem viable in humans…

    • #26976
      Dr.Stein
      Participant

      Actually it would be applied to human as well, to cure autoimmune disease.
      Since peripheral lymphocytes from mice A recoqnizise self antigens as nonself ones, they should be eliminated not to destroy body cells any further. That’s the irradiation purpose. Beside it will kill all effector cells and antibodies in peripheral circulation, it also will erase the immunological memory, thus in this time mice A is very susceptible. They need to educate naïve lymphocytes those still stay in thymus. By transferring new lymphocytes from another mice, say mice B, they will recoqnize body cells of mice A as self (because they grow in mice A’s environment) then they will educate their naïve step sisters (mice A’s original lymphocytes) so now they recoqnize their own cells as self and no autoimmune disease anymore.
      It’s somewhat complicated, hopefully my explanation will not make it to be more complicated 😀

    • #26995
      protozoan
      Participant

      How do lymphocytes from mice B educate native lymphocytes in mice A to not to recognize self body cells as nonself? I could understand that lymphocytes from mice B brings new imuno memory to the body of mice A, but native lymphocytes of mice A in the thymus should stay same.

    • #27505
      Dr.Stein
      Participant

      Well, it is not the idea…
      The cells coming from mouse B are naïve, as naïve as the remain cells in thymus of mouse A. Because those cells are grown in mouse A, in the periphery they will recognize mouse A’s cells as self.

      About naïve lymphocytes in thymus, they will undergo antigen-independent and antigen-dependent maturation. In this period, the self and nonself recognition is very important. Who will tell them which one is self and nonself? Of course, the peripheral environment. That’s it.

    • #27802
      protozoan
      Participant

      Does the effect is through the whole rest of life of mice A?

    • #27804
      Dr.Stein
      Participant

      Yes. The self reactive lymphocytes, the ones which recognize self cells as nonself, now is gone. The naïve cells now recognize self cells properly, means that they will not attack them anymore. Mouse A no longer suffers autoimmune disease.

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