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    • #17146
      lizzymichigan
      Participant

      If you could link me to a scholarly article that describes how after endosymbiosis, the bacterial cell and it’s eukaryotic host coordinated replication (or if you can explain it to me yourself) I would be really grateful. Originally, they replicated separately, so I’m not sure how they stayed together through generations. Was there some sort of chemical messenger that the mitochondria of a cell received to know it was time to replicate? I don’t know. Science help.

    • #113281
      jonmoulton
      Participant

      It’s an interesting question.

      I found this on a quick search. It describes a special case, but at least addresses the question.

      http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Ad … ne.0008458

    • #113282
      JackBean
      Participant

      Mitochondria replicate pretty much independently, so I don’t think there was any synchronisation.

    • #113297
      jonmoulton
      Participant

      There must be some synchronization cues; otherwise many cells would end up with over- or under-optimal numbers of mitochondria. Since many of the critical proteins in a mitochondrian are nuclear-encoded, the proliferation of the mitochondria can be limited by the availability of the nuclear-encoded gene products. It would be interesting if there are faster linkages, such as signaling cascades, the trigger mitochondrial replication checkpoints. I’m speculating; has anyone looked into the literature on this?

    • #113299
      JackBean
      Participant

      That’s good point. But I still don’t think the regulation is very tight.

    • #113619
      kk
      Participant

      Just a question about mtDNA:

      According to the endosymbiontic theory mitochondria were ancient bacteria that survived in an ancient eukaryotic cell and continued to live as part of it as an organelle. So, I suppose, in any eukaryotic cell the mtDNA should be relatively conserved. However, the mutational rate of mtDNA is ten fold higher than that of nuclear DNA. So is the mtDNA sequence conserved among e.g. various mammalian species or the opposite?

    • #115273
      kk
      Participant

      Another question about mtDNA: what is the advantage to/role of having multiple copies of the same circular DNA molecule? Isn’t that "too much of a dose" of the same given gene? Any mitochondria expert out here?

    • #115275
      jonmoulton
      Participant

      Regarding the regulation of replication of mitochondria, this paper discusses an influence of tumor necrosis factor alpha on mitochondrial replication while exploring the effect of adenosine on that regulatory system.

      http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Ad … ne.0098459

      Kalogeris TJ, Baines C, Korthuis RJ (2014) Adenosine Prevents TNFα-Induced Decrease in Endothelial Mitochondrial Mass via Activation of eNOS-PGC-1α Regulatory Axis. PLoS ONE 9(6): e98459. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0098459

    • #115276
      jonmoulton
      Participant
    • #115355
      kk
      Participant

      Fun study to read about, thanks for posting.

    • #115432
      jonmoulton
      Participant

      It keeps getting better. Mitochondria don’t just divide, they fuse. http://www.nature.com/scitable/topicpage/mitochondrial-fusion-and-division-14264007

    • #115456
      sosippus
      Participant
      quote lizzymichigan:

      If you could link me to a scholarly article that describes how after endosymbiosis, the bacterial cell and it’s eukaryotic host coordinated replication

      Maybe this helps?
      http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/ … 9.full.pdf

    • #115616
      RZachary1
      Participant

      The endosymbionts replicated by binary fission and are grouped into separate cells via the action of cytoskeletal movements.
      DMPK

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