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    • #850
      lazboy
      Participant

      hey,
      I need to do a Biology Report and need to know how your body gets rid of a virus or something else that is not meant to be in your body. Thanks in advance for the help 😀

    • #22151
      cytochromeP
      Participant

      There are 2 types of Immune Responses : Cell mediated and Humoral

      1. Humoral: Here we have plasma cells secreting Anti-bodies specific to the pathogen. These antibodies complex with their specific antigens present on the pathogen and precipitate it out of the circulation. Such immune-complexes will then be cleared out completely with the help of ‘complement’ and phagocytic macrophages.

      2. Cell-mediated: Here cytotoxic T lymphocytes are involved. These cells prevent the intracellular replication of viruses by releasing special chemicals called Interferons.

      In general:

      Viral infection, fungal infection => T cells
      Bacterial infection => Plasma cells

      Ref: 1. Immunology by Janus Kuby
      2. Immunology by Tizzard

    • #22172
      MrMistery
      Participant

      Ever wondered why your body can not fight the HIV virus? It is because it keeps changing it’s proteic lare and the antibodies do not recognise it by the time they get there.
      But i will find the cure for AIDS!

    • #22188
      biostudent84
      Participant

      Offtopic: Did you know that the American KKK wants to throw everyone with AIDS into a form of concentration camp to keep it from spreading? Bleh…

      Back on topic: Don’t forget that you get a fever. A fever is a response to pathogens inside the human body. What it is trying to do is denature the proteins in the pathogens. Unfortunately, it only works if the denaturing tempureate of the pathogen is lower than that of the human body (estimated around 106* F).

      Kyle

    • #26405
      Dr.Stein
      Participant

      Humoral immune response only works to remove viral infection when the virus is still outside of the cell. When the virus already comes inside the cell, the virus-infected cell will process the viral peptides to express modified MHC-I (due to the present of foreign peptides of virus) on its surface to be recognized by CD8+ T-cell (CTL), in which it will kill the cell by cytotoxic activitiy. Also, the activated T-cell will release specific cytokine (interferon) that can induce cells to resist viral replication.

      Why HIV cannot easily eradicated from cells? Because it infects immune cell (CD4+), which function to help B-cell for maturation to differentiate into plasma cells and memory cells. Now CD4+ even helps HIV to proliferate. It is terrible, cell that should protects our body from the infection now helps our enemy to kill ourself! 🙁

    • #26415
      victor
      Participant

      That’s a betrayer in our body…that’s so complex Dr.Stein… 🙄 all the thing that I know about immune system is the cell is using restrict endonucleasm enzyme to cut out virus’s protein and making the virus non-active…

    • #26433
      chemistry_freako
      Participant

      yea – restriction endonucleases are also involved sometimes in cell immunity defence =D

    • #26536
      Dr.Stein
      Participant
      quote victor:

      That’s a betrayer in our body…that’s so complex Dr.Stein… 🙄 all the thing that I know about immune system is the cell is using restrict endonucleasm enzyme to cut out virus’s protein and making the virus non-active…

      Yes, it is only one of several mechanisms for cells to anticipate viral infection. Before the mechanism takes place, viral DNA is already fused to host’s DNA and hijack it. Virus is much clever nowadays 😆 even the ‘old’ one: influenza, “the master of virus”, still cannot be eradicated up to now like its colleague, the vaccinia 😀

    • #26549
      victor
      Participant

      Guess we must make a better molecular scissor….

    • #26567
      James
      Participant

      Maybe nanotechnology will one day fight viruses for us.

    • #26614
      Dr.Stein
      Participant

      Perhaps we need to give more education to lymphocytes and APCs to recognize all peptides from those clever viruses, so whatever and however they change such gene expression, our system will recognize it much better and faster 😀

    • #26671
      victor
      Participant

      Before Lymphocytes recognize the virus…the virus has already translate it’s own RNA and make lymphocytes died… 😆

    • #26712
      Dr.Stein
      Participant

      Naah, our body is already equipped with physical, chemical, and biochemical barriers, also we have innate and adaptive immune system, active immunosurveillance and active imunological memory. Those defenses should work properly. And definetely APC should be treated and given much more education before viruses penetrate into our fragile cells especially the laborous lymphocytes and mess up our body 👿 Whoaa I hate viruses! Grrr 😈 😆

    • #26781
      victor
      Participant

      Umm, talking about immune system, do you know anything about NK cell? I think it’s called Natural Killer cells..

    • #26809
      Dr.Stein
      Participant

      NK cells derived from lymphocyte stem cells. In their development, they lack CD3, a marker of all lymphocytes. They play a role in non-specific cytoxicity, destroying pathogen-infected cells by releasing hydrolitic enzymes, perforin and granzyme. In a standard blood smear preparation they appear just like lymphocytes. You can distinguish them from lymphocytes by applying immunohistochemistry technique using CD3 marker. NK cells will show negative result for the marker.

    • #27112
      victor
      Participant

      Um…By the way…NK cell contains much IFN-Alpha and IFN-Beta but those two are different with IFN-X that is carried by T-cell…what does it mean??

    • #27419
      Dr.Stein
      Participant

      Hey, wait, NK cells produce IFN-γ instead of IFN-α and IFN-β 🙂

      IFN-γ is produced by T cells and NK cells. It takes action in activating macrophages activation, increasing expression of MHC molecules and antigen processing compnents, switching Ig class (IgM/D to IgG), suppressing Th2 (humoral immune response)

      IFN-α is produced by leucocytes. It takes action in antiviral responses, increasing MHC class I expression.

      IFN-β is produced by fibroblasts. Has a similar actions to IFN-α.

    • #27427
      victor
      Participant

      I’ve read that also, but in the front chapter it’s written “NK cell is equipped with IFN-α and IFN-β. these two IFNs are different type from IFN-γ which is produced by T-cells”.

    • #27499
      Dr.Stein
      Participant

      Could you tell me your reference please?

      Mine is Immunobiology: the Immune System in Health and Disease, 6th, by Janeway et al.

    • #27574
      victor
      Participant

      Mine is:
      Jawetz, Melnick & Adelberg’s medical microbiology by Geo F.Brooks, Janet S. Butel, and Stephen A. Morse. Actually mine is the translated version by medical faculty of Airlangga University. Published my Mc Graw-Hill Inc.

      For Immunology, just open chapter 8 of that book…

    • #27578
      Dr.Stein
      Participant

      Translated edition eh? 😛

    • #27708
      victor
      Participant

      So?? Yeah, you know that I can’t read english at all so I only have the translated edition…anything wrong??are you trying to say that the translated it wrong??
      Well, today I read the ‘basic immunology’ and I found that you’re right. NK cells produced IFN-gamma…thanks

    • #27718
      Dr.Stein
      Participant

      Sorry, I did not mean that. But sometimes it is easier to understand the English version rather than the translated edition. I experienced it myself. I have Basic Histology by Junqueira & Carneiro (Indonesian edition), it makes me frustrated, then I purchased the English version and, OMG, that’s nice to read! 😉

      Also, I suggest you to dig things from the source, means that if you like to study more about Immunology, use Immunology book and not General biology or something like that. If you are interesting on it, and needs an Indonesian version, I recommend you to read Imunologi Dasar by Karnen Bharatawijaya (UI Press), get the latest edition. That’a a nice book.

      I am sorry if I offended you 🙁

    • #27820
      victor
      Participant

      Dr.Stein wrote:
      I recommend you to read Imunologi Dasar by Karnen Bharatawijaya (UI Press), get the latest edition. That’a a nice book.

      By the way, I’ve just bougt it and yes, it’s better that the one in my first book….and I’ve just known that T-cell is the most difficult thing to learn the process…. 😆
      You know, when I was in 11th grade, I thought macrophages and granulocytes are the most difficult… 😆

      Hey please give some opinion:
      IFN-Gamma is used as a complement and also can be used by itself. (T/F)
      Why there’re sooooooooo many CD??(Cluster of…….)

    • #27837
      Dr.Stein
      Participant

      Good boy! Well, yes that’s one of my fav book 🙂 From now on, listen to Dr.Stein. 😆

      I don’t get the point of your first question. As I remember, IFN-γ has nothing to do with complement, I mean they don’t directly interact to each other for an ction, but they cooperate to provide immunity. They are two different things. IFN-γ is a cytokine, I already told you where it comes from, it contributes only in adaptive immune response, functions to change the behavior of its target cells. While complement, a plasma protein, contributes in both innate and adaptive immune response, functions to facilitate opsonization and membran attack activity, coopertae with immunogobulin to facilitate opsonization as well…

      CD or Cluster of Differentiation is a protein molecule, functions as a surface marker for lymphocytes.You don’t have to remember all the CDs, cytokines, and all things in the list. You will automatically remember them when you often use them. But still there are some that you should remember, for instance CD3, CD4, CD8, IL-1, IL-2, IL-8, IFNs, TGFs, TNFs, etc. because IMO they are basic to understand the mechanism.

      As a marker, CD# is specific for generating a cognate interaction (cell to cell interaction). Well, simply it works like receptor:ligand, one receptor is specific for one ligand. For example:
      – T-cells that bring CD4 on their membrane, they are called as CD4+ T cell, will recognize only cells that express MHC classII on their membrane
      – CD28 will interact only with B7 (protein molecule of the macrophage)
      etc.

      Also it can be used to distinguish such lymphocyte from different clones. For example:
      – all lymphocytes has CD3, so they are called as CD3+, except NK cells, they lack CD3 or CD3-, so by immunohistochemistry for CD3 staining, you can distinguish NK cells from another lymphocytes.
      – CD2 only possesed by B cell, you can distinguish B cell from T cell.
      etc.

      It seems that you are interested in Immunology eh? Learn well, I support you, I need a good assistant for helping me in practical labwork 😉

    • #116084
      jon123
      Participant
      quote lazboy:

      hey,
      I need to do a Biology Report and need to know how your body gets rid of a virus or something else that is not meant to be in your body. Thanks in advance for the help 😀

      Phagocytosis is the main body mechanism through which it expels out virus or other foreign particles from body.

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