monera kingdom

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    • #1085
      kandarp shah
      Participant

      hi guys!!!!!!!11 😀
      i have just strated my ADVANCE PLACEMENT BIOLOGY, so for the beging i am start running through the FIVE KINGDOM.
      and in my book it says that monera has the circular chromosomes.i do not want to confuse at any point so canany body tell me specific about that WHAT IS CIRCULAR CHROMOSOMES in the kingdom of monera??????? and any body can give me some web sites that simplifies the basic biology about organisms……???? ❓
      and if any body who has AP BIOLOGY high school can explain me how do i prepare fpr that.

      i would be truly appreciated your help. 😛
      thanks in advance.

    • #23881
      victor
      Participant

      Five kingdoms?wow….. 😯
      I can think that circular chromosomes is the structure that kinda like the circle one. It’s different from eukaryota cells because eukaryota cells have an “X” shape chromosomes.

    • #23891
      Jelanen
      Participant

      GAH!?! No, eukaryotes DO NOT have X-shaped chromosomes…thats only during cell division. Normally they look like a big (3d) plate of spaghetti inside the nucleus with chromosomes being linear. Monera has the circular chromosomes…kinda handy since it cuts down on all the telomere silliness.

      -Jelanen

    • #23915
      MrMistery
      Participant

      Circular chromosome? Easy: it’s about the shape: they don’t have linear chromosomes, they are circular.
      By the way: aacording to the latest clasification there are 6 kingdomes

    • #23922
      th1_rhs13
      Participant

      Archebacteria
      Eubacteria
      Protista
      Fungi
      Anamalia
      Plantae

      Yup, 6….

      Would they be classified as Coccus if there attributes reflect a more round, spherical shape? Or is that just term unique to other forms?

    • #23924
      MrMistery
      Participant

      Coccus is a general term used for bacteria with spherical shape

    • #23928
      mith
      Participant

      I’d suggest looking at the tutorials on this website and if that doesn’t cover enough, look up biology at sparknotes.com

    • #23935
      th1_rhs13
      Participant

      Thought so, thanks!

      I was just looking over the Bacteria Kingdom.

    • #23967
      victor
      Participant

      Um, my six kingdoms are different (or maybe just the words):
      -Monera
      -Protist
      -Fungi
      -Plantae
      -Animalia and
      -Virus

      Is Archaebacteria is the same type as virus?or monera?

    • #23974
      mith
      Participant

      nope, archaebacteria are extremophiles…living in highly salty, hot/cold…extreme environments. Virii aren’t alive. More discusion on that if you search the forum.

    • #23985
      Poison
      Participant

      I should inform my proffessors about the kingdoms. 🙂

      The ones they teach is: Monera,Protista,Fungi,Plantae,Animalia.
      Maybe they classify all the bacteria in one kingdom.

    • #23995
      mith
      Participant

      Yeah, monera was split into eubacteria(new) and archaeobacteria(old). I guess they found the genes diverged too much.

      Pretty soon they’ll have to do something about protist too. Right now it’s just for putting things that don’t belong elsewhere.

    • #24005
      canalon
      Participant
      quote mithrilhack:

      Yeah, monera was split into eubacteria(new) and archaeobacteria(old). I guess they found the genes diverged too much..

      Eubacteria means “real bacteria”. Archaebacteria means the “old bacteria” because the first to be discovered were extremophiles and were thought to be the ancestor of the other bacteria. But more recent phylogenies studies are rather putting them as closer to the eucaryotes than to the eubacteria. Another misnomer in biology 🙁

      Patrick

    • #24006
      kandarp shah
      Participant
      quote mithrilhack:

      nope, archaebacteria are extremophiles…living in highly salty, hot/cold…extreme environments. Virii aren’t alive. More discusion on that if you search the forum.

      as i know about six kingdoms….. archaeobacteria are only survive where there is no oxygen. they live is harsh places .
      example are solt loving bacteria, hot loving bacteria
      yup 😆

    • #24071
      MrMistery
      Participant

      Bergey’s manual of bacteriology(i hate that book-really hard- but it is generally reffered to as the best) suggests:
      – Archebacteria be called archea… This is actually happening… I’ve had a number of college professors yell at me for calling them archebacteria
      – Not using the term Eubacteria to define the kingdom, simply use Monera. A lot of books refer to “Kingdom eubacteria” although officially it doesn’t officially exist

      Yes, archea is closer to eukaryotic cells than bacteria:
      – DNA has introns
      – The rRNA in the big unit of ribosoms resembles extremely much to that of eukaryotic cells
      – they react different to antibiotics and toxins
      – Archea lack murein in the cellular wall, some species don’t even have it
      – Archea have different lipids in the cellular membrane
      And a lot of other stuff 😉 😉

    • #24464
      victor
      Participant

      Wow, I’ve just known ’bout that…from 2 years ago when I studied classification, it’s written in my book that virii is classified into one of the six kingdoms as a new kingdoms. But now, it has been replaced with archae…thanks for the information 😛

    • #24583
      MrMistery
      Participant

      I am really concerned with what book you are studying victor. I doubt viruses were ever defined as alive… Not 2 years ago anyway

    • #24592
      biostudent84
      Participant
      quote MrMistery:

      I am really concerned with what book you are studying victor. I doubt viruses were ever defined as alive… Not 2 years ago anyway

      The jury isn’t out yet on that yet. Half the scientists say viruses are alive, the other half say they aren’t. We’ve even had debates here about it….but there has yet to be a consensus reached.

    • #24613
      b_d_41501
      Participant

      But define alive?? That’s the problem

    • #24641
      biostudent84
      Participant
      quote b_d_41501:

      But define alive?? That’s the problem

      According to Cell Theory…..if you are made of cells, then you are alive.

    • #24661
      th1_rhs13
      Participant

      But Viruses are non cellular And can only replicate within a host.

      Granted they are made up of either RNA or Dna.

      Also its reproductive cycle never denotes the creation of cells, only the use of a host cell. The steps are as follows. Cited from my Bilogy notes. Also Virus is not a Kingdom of life.

      Viral Reproduction

      • Adsorption –
      Host attachment
      Use receptors

      • Penetration –
      Injection of nucleic acid and/or entire virus
      Injection – Virus injects nucleic acid
      Endocytosis – Fusion of viral membrane with host cell membrane

      • Biosynthesis-
      Makes viral parts
      Use of H.C. machinery

      • Assembly-
      Putting parts together

      • Release-
      Lytic cycle – Lyses host cell
      Lysogenic cycle – virus becomes latent before H.C. destruction

      Simple curiosity, what level of Biology are you studying (all reading this)? It seems many of your sources and questions are emphasized on High School level Biology. I never took a Lab In HS, I only I have what was acquired within my University studies.

    • #24664
      biostudent84
      Participant

      True. I think it’s accurate to say that viruses don’t reproduce, they replicate.

    • #24704
      victor
      Participant

      Ok I got it now…simple theory..considered tobe alive if it reproduces. But, virii replicate not reproduce..But, How about Biosynthesis stage…virii reduplicating their parts?? can it called as a reproduction?

    • #24757
      biostudent84
      Participant
      quote victor:

      Ok I got it now…simple theory..considered tobe alive if it reproduces. But, virii replicate not reproduce..But, How about Biosynthesis stage…virii reduplicating their parts?? can it called as a reproduction?

      Like I said, the jury still isn’t out on that one. It’s best to wait until people smarter than us decide whether or not viruses are living, rather than arguing a debate that the best in the field is still trying to decide…

    • #24759
      MrMistery
      Participant

      Maybe until they decide we will get our PhD’s and decide for them 😀

    • #24799
      b_d_41501
      Participant

      My personal opinion is that they are not alive. They just carry out a pre-programmed purpose. But remember, that’s just my opinion so don’t crucify me. lol j/k 😀

    • #24884
      victor
      Participant

      I agree that virii is living things…um, I’ve to think for some reasons first.. 🙄

    • #25058
      victor
      Participant

      Hey I’ve thought of some reasons about virii is classified into living or non-living when I was in the toilet this morning.. 😆
      Let’s start from this, we know that every living thigs have a DNA or RNA as a blueprint for their next generation. Then we may conclude for the new statement of living organisms are thing that contains nucleic acid (DNA or RNA). This means I conclude that virii can be classified into living organism.

      I can think like that because I think that the theory of the living organism that states cell is the smallest structure of life isn’t proper anymore. They said it like that because they still don’t have any SEM or TEM.

    • #25070
      MrMistery
      Participant

      This has been havily debated on the forum. Use the search function.
      PS: What is SEM and TEM?

    • #25076
      Poison
      Participant

      There are a lot of reasons why virii can’t be alive. Like Andrew said, I advise you to have a search in the forum.
      @Andrew:
      SEM: Scannig Electron Microscope
      TEM: Transmission Electron Microscope

    • #25138
      Wood Thrush
      Participant

      The concept of diving life into five kingdoms is outdated and no longer biologically useful. Instead, biologists recognize three “domains” of life: Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukaryota. As discussed earlier, viruses are not organisms in the strong sense that archaens, bacteria, and eukaryotes are, and because of this, and the fact that their evoltionary ancestry is unknown, they are simply not included in most classification schemes.

      Bacteria is a diverse group of tiny microorganisms with no internal membranes, and their DNA consists of single huge loop anchored to the inner cell surface, as well as smaller loops of DNA called plasmids. They usually have a chemical called peptidoglycan in their cell walls (though there is a group which lacks cell walls altogether). Bacteria get a bad rap for the diseases some types cause, but most are harmless, and many, such as nitrate-producing Rhizobium that live in intimate association with plant roots, are essential parts of natural cycles.

      Archaea is the most-recently recognized group, and much of their characteristics are still being discovered by biologists. Archaeans, like bacteria, are microorganisms with no internal membranes, have looped DNA with plastids, and share some aspects of metabolism with bacteria too. But chemically, archeans are very distict from bacteria. For example, the cell membrane is much different from bacteria: the glycerol in their lipids is a mirror image of the kind in bacteria, is linked by ether bonds (ester in bacteria) to branched isoprene chains (unbranched fatty acids in bacteria). Archaea are even more similar to eukaryotes than to bacteria in some respects, such as the details of their genetic transcription and translation! While archaeans thrive in some of the harshest environments on earth, such as super-heated ocean vents and hypersaline water, they aren’t exclusively extremists. Some new research is showing they are abundant in ocean plankton.

      Finally, Eukaryota is most easily defined as living things whose cells contain “organelles” – membrane-bound “compartments” that specialize in certain metabolic tasks.

      Why is the five-kingdoms view deprecated? Ideally, we would like our classification system to reflect the ancestry of species; that is, species that are classified together should be related to each other more closely than to species in other groups. The five kingdoms scheme does not do this. In fact the five-kingdom system groups bacteria and archaea together, even though they are fundamentally very different types of organisms, and probably diverged from each other early on in the history of life. Also, the kingdom called “Protista” is not a sensible entity. Some protists are more closely related to fungi than they are to other protists, some more closely related to plants than other protists, you get the idea. In fact that old group “Protista” contains much, much more diversity than the other eukaryotic kingdoms! If you looked from an evolutionary point of veiw, animals, plants, and fungi are all just specific, multi-cellular “protist” lineages. While modern biologists still use the term “protist”, it is a descriptive term, not a classification — it is used to refer to unicellular eukaryotes as a group.

      I am worried that your “advanced” class teaches you outdated science. Then again, your teacher is probably not a biologist, so what should I expect…

    • #25140
      mith
      Participant

      Yup, teachers are usually not the best in their field(the high school teacher at least).

    • #25143
      victor
      Participant

      Hey thanks for the new information..you help me a lot about defining those old kingdoms..I should talk this with my bio teacher about this news..hope she will understand about it. (she is stubborn you know 😆 )

    • #25172
      MrMistery
      Participant

      I think your teacher probably knows about this. When we did biosistematics last year i asked my teacher this question and she said: “I hate to teach what is in that book, even if it is updated”
      A sad thing….

    • #25217
      victor
      Participant

      Even though My teacher teach the newest thing that comes out from the biology..she can’t change anything in the government biology curicullum..so..no effect..sad isn’t it? 😉

    • #25272
      MrMistery
      Participant

      Yup, we had a case here in romania, when a biology teacher got his salary cut for teaching the new plant classification instead of the old one…

    • #25332
      victor
      Participant

      WHAT?!?..that’s cruel man 😕 …actually the teacher is dedicated to teach us until the newest information about biology…looks like for this kind of problem, we have to find it by our own…

    • #25395
      MrMistery
      Participant

      Actually the high-school teacher is there to teach you the basics of biology(Yes, those are only the basics! 😀 )If you want a more detailed study on something, you need to pick up a book and read….

    • #25428
      opuntia
      Participant

      And end up getting more and more confused?[that’s what happen to me if i read too much books on related topics :lol:]

    • #25432
      victor
      Participant

      You’re the same with me Opuntia… 😆 Now, I’m get a little bit confused about that also. I have to catch up in Bio and have to memorize a 1000-page general bio book till the most detail one…..
      By the way..is the ‘confuse’ word comes from an alifatic single chain hydrocarbon or nucleic acids or proteins inside our brain?? 😆

    • #25509
      MrMistery
      Participant

      You NEED to know the basics before you move on to advanced stuff

    • #25534
      victor
      Participant

      what do you mean???it’s all the basic bio you know….it’s still not the advanced one.. 😉

    • #25617
      MrMistery
      Participant

      1000 pages basic biology?! I hate to see your advanced book 😆

    • #25713
      victor
      Participant

      Um…I don’t know what is the standard size of the basic biology in every country…but, if you see the explanation that I “composed” in the human biology-urine…that’s still inside my basic bio book for senior high school… 😛

    • #25778
      chemistry_freako
      Participant

      Hmm circular chromosomes? sounds like plasmids haha. pretty typical of bacteria heh =D
      Remember trying to clone the gene for GFP and allow the bacteria to express it, and my group had quite a few “glow colonies” (fluoresce under UV) =D.

    • #26365
      victor
      Participant

      According to my new bio book that I’ve just bougt today, the classification of organisms are based on their nuclei membrane. So, there’re only two kingdoms which are Procariota and Eukaryota.
      Procaryota divided into bacteria and archaea.
      Eukaryota divided into protista, fungus, plantae and animalia.

    • #26393
      th1_rhs13
      Participant

      As was said if you ascend into the higher forms of Biology they no longer abide by such. Instead they reffer to Domains which were previously spoken about, your assertions are apt though- they do branch off as you stated.

      Perhaps you could entail what exact book you are citing, publisher, date, etc…

    • #26416
      victor
      Participant

      Hmm…I don’t know about the book exactly because I do ‘free reading’ in a book store..that’s it..but as far as I know, the book title is Medical Microbiology. It’s a foreign book which has been translated into my country’s language..maybe tomorrow I’ll give you the details because I want to do ‘free reading’ again…. 😆 (the book is soooooooo expensive… 😥 )

    • #26500
      victor
      Participant

      Hey I’ve gotten the book..the title is ‘Medical Microbiology’ written by: Geo. F. Brooks, Janet S. Butel, and Stephen A. Morse. It’s published my Mc Graw-Hill Inc.

    • #26518
      opuntia
      Participant
      quote victor:

      Hey I’ve gotten the book..the title is ‘Medical Microbiology’ written by: Geo. F. Brooks, Janet S. Butel, and Stephen A. Morse. It’s published my Mc Graw-Hill Inc.

      That’s a great book with all those diagrams and illustrations.

    • #26548
      victor
      Participant

      So, ou have it too?yes, it’s truly a great book, it has everthing that I want to find.. 😆

    • #26970
      ginny
      Participant

      Yes we are very cheep no matter who you are expect famous people lol.

    • #27576
      victor
      Participant

      What do you mean Ginny??

    • #27903
      Jokkon
      Participant
      quote kandarp shah:

      hi guys!!!!!!!11 😀
      i have just strated my ADVANCE PLACEMENT BIOLOGY, so for the beging i am start running through the FIVE KINGDOM.
      and in my book it says that monera has the circular chromosomes.i do not want to confuse at any point so canany body tell me specific about that WHAT IS CIRCULAR CHROMOSOMES in the kingdom of monera??????? and any body can give me some web sites that simplifies the basic biology about organisms……???? ❓
      and if any body who has AP BIOLOGY high school can explain me how do i prepare fpr that.

      i would be truly appreciated your help. 😛
      thanks in advance.

      =( why’d anyone take AP courses, just to save some money when u get to universities? i’d just take regular courses, safer this way, universities look at ur GPA only, don’t think they care whether u take ap or not

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